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Biology Notes for 12th Grade, 2023, All Chapters
The Variety of Plants 11th Grade Biology Notes Table of Contents
Define generational alternation and explain why it is important.
Change in a generation:
The occurrence of two or more forms that are created in different ways during an animal or plant’s life cycle, usually with regular sex alternation and asexual reproduction.
“Alternation of generation is a type of reproduction where the sexual and asexual generations alternate. A gametophyte is created when spores from the sporophyte germinate. The haploid cells (egg and sperm) produced by the gametophyte fuse to form a juvenile sporophyte.
Alternation of generation is an adaptation to land habitat which ensures diversity and variations in characters. These variations help the plant to adjust and survive the land habitat.
generation and emphasize its significance.
Define heterogamy, Q.2 (ii).
“A sexual reproduction method known as heterogamy involves different-sized and-shaped gametes. The smaller gamete, or sperm, is mobile while the larger gamete, or egg, is not.
“Heterogamy is a condition in which the sperm and egg, which form the conjugating gametes, differ in size, shape, and function.”
What are an antheridium and an archegonium, respectively?
One example is antheridium.
“The antheridium is the male sexual organ of algae, mosses, ferns, fungus, and other non-flowering plants.”
Antheridium’s chemical makeup:
The antheridium is a multicellular, club-shaped body with a short stalk that is filled with a large number of tiny cells known as antherozoid cells. The apex of the antheridium ruptures, releasing the antherozoid cells through.
“The archegonium is the female sexual organ of algae, mosses, ferns, fungus, and other non-flowering plants.”
Arrangement of the archegonium:
The archegonium is a multicellular creature that has the appearance of a flask. It has two sections and is equipped with a short, multicellular stalk;
I- Belly Venter
The middle is as inflated in the bottom half (belly).
The neck is the term for the upper, tube-like section. Long, thin, and straight describe the neck.
A big cell called the ovum (also known as an egg cell or noosphere) or female gamete is located within the venture; it is followed by a small ventral canal cell and a few neck canal cells that are located higher up in the neck. Other cells mentioned above, aside from the ovum, are inactive.
Q.2 iv) Describe the variations between tracheophytes and bryophytes.
Because they lack a circulatory system, bryophytes
The vascular system of tracheophytes is well developed.
They do not have specific vascular tissue.
Their circulatory system, which consists of the xylem and phloem, is well developed.
Most bryophytes are fairly small, although some can grow to lengths of more than 2 cm.
Sizes of tracheophytes vary from a few CMS to 30m.
Examples of bryophytes include hornworts, liverworts, and mosses.
Gymnosperms, ferns, and angiosperms are all examples of tracheophytes.
Bryophytes lack these transport systems and the specialized cells and tissues that would carry out this role for them.
Tracheophytes have a well-developed vascular system that allows for the transportation of water, nutrients, and carbohydrates from the roots to the leaves and vice versa.