12th Class Biology Notes 2023 All Chapters

Biology Notes for 12th Grade, All Chapters. You won’t have to worry about computer science books and their notes in PDF format if you view the 12th Class Biology Notes in a chapter format. Biology notes are written in a clear and simple manner. Here you will find answers to all of the exercises’ short questions, lengthy questions, and solved MCQs. Biology Notes for 12th Grade, All Chapters. These notes are the finest for you if you wish to pass the yearly 2023 computer ICS exam with a perfect score. Please leave a remark if you spot any mistakes in the notes, and we’ll get back to you as soon as we can. Biology Notes for 12th Grade, All Chapters.

Notes on Biology 2023, All Chapters 12th Grade:

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Students in ICS Part 2 will shortly arrive in the exam room to take their annual exam. The majority of pupils have started their exam prep already. In order to avoid feeling under pressure during the exam, students should actually begin studying early. To assist ICS Students from Educatehell.com come up with a concept and giving students study materials for exams. To finish all the chapters in one day is highly time-consuming, however, making notes makes things simpler. We advise pupils to learn using notes from the 12th grade because of this.

“Keep in mind that the 12th Class Pure Study Notes are updated annually. Paper is according to the new Schedule every year. As a result, this Schedule only applies to the year 2023. The following year, I’ll update this page for 2024.

Notes for Each Chapter 12th-grade biology:

It’s a healthy practice for many pupils to take their own notes. You can download the ICS Part 2 computer notes from this page, though, if you’re too exhausted or lazy to make your own notes. The chapter-by-chapter Lesson 12 Biology notes 2023 provided on this page include all crucial details and subjects. The notes for Lesson 12 of ICS Part 2 Biology are complete and accurate. Students might want to test it and see whether it works for them. We think that these will be highly beneficial to kids. The cost of Computer Notes ICS Part 2 will never change. We’ll keep adding fresh notes, old papers, speculative papers, and more throughout time.

Biology Notes for 12th Grade, 2023, All Chapters
The Variety of Plants 11th Grade Biology Notes Table of Contents

Define generational alternation and explain why it is important.


Change in a generation:

The occurrence of two or more forms that are created in different ways during an animal or plant’s life cycle, usually with regular sex alternation and asexual reproduction.


“Alternation of generation is a type of reproduction where the sexual and asexual generations alternate. A gametophyte is created when spores from the sporophyte germinate. The haploid cells (egg and sperm) produced by the gametophyte fuse to form a juvenile sporophyte.

Importance of alternation of generation: 

   Alternation of generation is an adaptation to land habitat which ensures diversity and variations in characters. These variations help the plant to adjust and survive the land habitat.

generation and emphasize its significance.
Define heterogamy, Q.2 (ii).
Response: Heterogamy

“A sexual reproduction method known as heterogamy involves different-sized and-shaped gametes. The smaller gamete, or sperm, is mobile while the larger gamete, or egg, is not.


“Heterogamy is a condition in which the sperm and egg, which form the conjugating gametes, differ in size, shape, and function.”

What are an antheridium and an archegonium, respectively?

One example is antheridium.

“The antheridium is the male sexual organ of algae, mosses, ferns, fungus, and other non-flowering plants.”

Antheridium’s chemical makeup:

The antheridium is a multicellular, club-shaped body with a short stalk that is filled with a large number of tiny cells known as antherozoid cells. The apex of the antheridium ruptures, releasing the antherozoid cells through.

Second, Archegonium

“The archegonium is the female sexual organ of algae, mosses, ferns, fungus, and other non-flowering plants.”

Arrangement of the archegonium:

The archegonium is a multicellular creature that has the appearance of a flask. It has two sections and is equipped with a short, multicellular stalk;

I- Belly Venter

The middle is as inflated in the bottom half (belly).

  1. Neck

The neck is the term for the upper, tube-like section. Long, thin, and straight describe the neck.

Ovum (iii)

A big cell called the ovum (also known as an egg cell or noosphere) or female gamete is located within the venture; it is followed by a small ventral canal cell and a few neck canal cells that are located higher up in the neck. Other cells mentioned above, aside from the ovum, are inactive.

Q.2 iv) Describe the variations between tracheophytes and bryophytes.




Because they lack a circulatory system, bryophytes

The vascular system of tracheophytes is well developed.

They do not have specific vascular tissue.

Their circulatory system, which consists of the xylem and phloem, is well developed.

Most bryophytes are fairly small, although some can grow to lengths of more than 2 cm.

Sizes of tracheophytes vary from a few CMS to 30m.

Examples of bryophytes include hornworts, liverworts, and mosses.

Gymnosperms, ferns, and angiosperms are all examples of tracheophytes.

Bryophytes lack these transport systems and the specialized cells and tissues that would carry out this role for them.

Tracheophytes have a well-developed vascular system that allows for the transportation of water, nutrients, and carbohydrates from the roots to the leaves and vice versa.

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