BSc Botany 2nd Year Plants Physiology Notes 2023

2nd Year Plant Physiology Notes for BSc Botany 2023. The chemistry and physics underlying how plants work are the main topics of plant physiology. Plants use photosynthesis to convert light energy into sugars, which they then digest through aerobic cellular respiration. that area of plant science that seeks to comprehend how living things behave and survive. Its ultimate goal is to explain all of a plant’s life processes using a small number of all-encompassing concepts based on chemistry, physics, and math. 2nd Year Plant Physiology Notes for BSc Botany 2023.

Typically, there are three main sections:

  1. the physiology of nutrition and metabolism, which examines how substances are taken up, transformed, released, and moved within and between plant cells and organs;
  2. The study of the physiology of growth, development, and reproduction, which focuses on how plants perform in these areas; and
  3. environmental physiology, which aims to comprehend the various ways in which plants react to their surroundings. Stress physiology refers to the area of environmental physiology that deals with the consequences of and responses to unfavorable circumstances—and which is drawing more and more attention.

Introduction to plant physiology

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What does plant physiology mean?

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Plant physiology is the study of plant function and behavior, encompassing all the dynamic processes of growth, metabolism, reproduction, defense, and communication that account for plants being alive (Salisbury & Ross, 1992; Baluška et al., 2006; Scott, 2008).

What is basic plant physiology?

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Plant physiology looks at the different parts of plants and how they work, either individually or collectively. … It includes the study of such topics in plant biology as the structure and function of leaves, stems, and roots, water, and sugar conductivity, and the reproductive organs of plants.

Why is plant physiology important?

By revealing the dependence of life processes on environmental conditions, plant physiology serves as the theoretical basis for increasing the total productivity of plants, improving their nutritional value, and raising the quality of their tissues and organs for use in industry.

What is the difference between crop physiology and plant physiology?

Crop physiology is the study of the ways in which plant physiological processes are integrated to cause whole plant responses in communities. The subject matter of crop physiology includes the ways in which the knowledge of plant physiology is applied for better management of crops.

What is the scope of plant physiology?

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Plant physiology has vibrant scope in the field of agriculture. It is very important to know the functions of a living organism or any of its parts. They also have scope in agriculture fields, medicine, food production, and textiles.

Who is the father of plant physiology?

Julius SachsJulius Sachs (1868): The father of plant physiology.

Unit 3: Plant Physiology and Regulation

Microscope image of an open stoma (top) and closed stoma (bottom). Both are surrounded by transparent, thick-walled guard cells.
Figure Unit3.1Unit3.1: Plants balance water loss with their need for carbon dioxide through the stomatal opening (top) and closure (bottom).

The chemistry and physics underlying how plants work are the main topics of plant physiology. Plants use photosynthesis to convert light energy into sugars, which they then digest through aerobic cellular respiration. They react to a range of environmental factors by changing their growth, going through life events like germination or blossoming, or, in some rare circumstances, even moving. Biogeochemical cycles supply soils with the mineral nutrients and water that plants need to survive. when minerals and water have been absorbed.

They must be moved through the xylem, which is propelled by water’s cohesive and adhesive qualities as well as the loss of water vapor from leaves during transpiration. Similar to this assimilates that are high in sugar must be translocated through the phloem. Plants use five different hormone subtypes to transmit messages throughout their bodies. Examples of how plants control their internal conditions are found throughout this unit, including the transport and retention of water, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the leaves, and the positioning of stems, roots, and leaves (Figure Unit3.1Unit3.1).

13: Photosynthesis and Respiration

Photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration are key metabolic pathways. Photosynthesis is essential to all life on earth; both plants and animals depend on it (Figure 13.113.1)​​. It is the only biological process that can capture the energy that originates in outer space (sunlight) and convert it into chemical compounds (carbohydrates) that most organisms use to power their metabolism through aerobic cellular respiration or other pathways. In brief, the energy of sunlight is captured and used to energize electrons, which are then stored in the covalent bonds of sugar molecules. How long-lasting and stable are those covalent bonds? The energy extracted today by the burning of coal and petroleum products represents sunlight energy captured and stored by photosynthesis almost 200 million years ago.

View underneath an oak tree, showing lobed leaves with light penetrating them
Figure 13.113.1: The leaves of this oak tree capture light energy from the sun through photosynthesis. (The dark spheres are oak apple galls, induced by the California gall wasp.) Image by Melissa Ha (CC-BY).

Curated and authored by Melissa Ha using the following sources:

  • 8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis
  • 13.1: Energy and ATP
  • 13.2: Aerobic Cellular RespirationThrough aerobic cellular respiration, organisms break down sugars to produce usable energy in the form of ATP. This process consumes gaseous oxygen and releases carbon dioxide and water. There are four steps: glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation.
  • 13.3: Photosynthesis Overview and Equation Photosynthesis is essential to all life on earth; both plants and animals depend on it. It is the only biological process that can capture the energy that originates in outer space (sunlight) and convert it into chemical compounds (carbohydrates) that every organism uses to power its metabolism. In brief, the energy of sunlight is captured and used to energize electrons, which are then stored in the covalent bonds of sugar molecules.

13.4: Discovery of Photosynthesis

  • The history of the studies done on photosynthesis dates back to the 17th century with Jan Baptist van Helmont. He rejected the ancient idea that plants take most of their biomass from the soil.
  • 13.5: The Light-dependent ReactionsLike all other forms of kinetic energy, light can travel, change its form, and be harness to do work. In the case of photosynthesis, light energy is converted into chemical energy, which photoautotrophs use to build carbohydrate molecules. However, autotrophs only use a few specific components of sunlight.
  • 13.6: Light-independent Reactions The enzymatic stage has many participants. These include carbon dioxide, hydrogen carrier with hydrogen (NADPH), ATP, ribulose biphosphate (RuBP), and RuBisCO along with some other enzymes. Everything occurs in the matrix (stroma) of the chloroplast.
  • 13.7: Photorespiration and Photosynthetic Pathways Photorespiration occurs when RuBisCO binds to gaseous oxygen rather than carbon dioxide. It undoes the good anabolic work of photosynthesis, reducing the net productivity of the plant. Plants in different environments have adaptations to reduce photorespiration while minimizing water loss.

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