BSc Botany 3rd Year Microbiology & Plant Pathology Notes 2023

Microbiology & Plant Pathology Notes for the Third Year of BSc Botany 2023. These changes all took place in Europe. Microbiology did not become widely accepted in America until the early 1900s. At this time, a large number of microbiologists working in America had either studied under Koch or at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Microbiology expanded as it was founded in America, particularly in relation to fields like biochemistry and genetics. The primary reference for that field of study was established in 1923 by American bacteriologist David Bergey; updated editions of it are still in use today. Microbiology & Plant Pathology Notes for the Third Year of BSc Botany 2023.

Microbiology


The study of microscopic creatures including bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungus, and protozoa is known as microbiology. Fundamental studies on the biochemistry, physiology, cell biology, ecology, evolution, and clinical aspects of microbes, as well as the host’s reaction to these invaders, are included in this field.

Branches of Microbiology

  • Bacteriology: the study of bacteria.
  • Immunology: the study of the immune system.
  • Mycology: the study of fungi, such as yeasts and molds.
  • Nematology: the study of nematodes (roundworms).
  • Parasitology: the study of parasites.
  • Phycology: the study of algae.

Microbiology Biotic versus spontaneous production of life in 2023


The early Greeks held the theories of abiogenesis—the birth of life from nonliving matter—and the creation of life from inanimate objects by the goddess Gea. Aristotle rejected this idea, but he continued to believe that creatures may spontaneously develop from unrelated organisms or from the soil. Discover the technology’s potential for microbiological research Hear a researcher describe the possibility of conducting an interdisciplinary study in the fields of chemistry, biochemistry, and microbiology. Irish University College Cork (A Britannica Publishing Partner) View all videos related to this article. Microbiology & Plant Pathology Notes for the Third Year of BSc Botany 2023.

disease and microbes


Italian scholar Girolamo Fracastoro advanced the idea that contagion is an infection that spreads from one object to another as early as the mid-1500s. Until the late 1800s, when numerous scientists, Pasteur foremost among them, worked to determine the role of bacteria in fermentation and disease, an exact description of what is passed along eluded discovery. German physician Robert Koch defined the process (Koch’s postulates) for demonstrating that a particular organism is the cause of a particular sickness.

Discover the technology’s potential for microbiological research Hear a researcher describe the possibility of conducting an interdisciplinary study in the fields of chemistry, biochemistry, and microbiology. Ireland’s University College Cork (A Britannica Publishing Partner)View all related videos. Microbiology & Plant Pathology Notes for the Third Year of BSc Botany 2023.

These changes all take place in Europe. Microbiology did not become widely accepted in America until the early 1900s. At this time, a large number of microbiologists working in America had studied either under Koch or at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. As soon as it was established in America, microbiology flourished, particularly in relation to fields like biochemistry and genetics. American bacteriologist David Bergey established the standard reference for that field of study in 1923; subsequent editions are still in use today.

Below is a list of the primary categories of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi (yeasts and molds), algae, protozoa, and viruses. Links are provided to articles with more information on each of the key groups.

The understanding of all living things has advanced thanks to the study of microbes. Discover the technology’s potential for microbiological research Hear a researcher describe the possibility of conducting an interdisciplinary study in the fields of chemistry, biochemistry, and microbiology. Irish University College Cork (A Britannica Publishing Partner) View all videos related to this article. Microbiology & Plant Pathology Notes for the Third Year of BSc Botany 2023. This extensive investigation into the roles of microorganisms has yielded several, frequently unexpected benefits. For instance, understanding a pathogen’s basic metabolic process and dietary needs frequently results in a method of infection or illness control.

microorganism types


Below is a list of the primary categories of microorganisms, including bacteria, archaea, fungi (yeasts and molds), algae, protozoa, and viruses. Links are provided to articles with more information on each of the key groups.

Bacteria (eubacteria and archaea) (eubacteria and archaea)

Bacterial research played a significant role in the development of microbiology. Fungi cannot perform photosynthesis because they do not have chlorophyll, in contrast to algae. Fungi must take up dissolved nutrients from the environment as they do not consume food. Molds are usually used to refer to the multicellular fungus that produces filamentous, microscopic structures and are classified as microorganisms, whereas yeasts are unicellular fungi.

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the two types of creatures that make up the microbial world; all bacteria are prokaryotes, which are single-cell organisms without a membrane-bound nucleus. Instead of residing in the nucleus, their DNA (the cell’s genetic material) is a lengthy thread that is dispersed throughout the entire cell.

Microbiology & Plant Pathology Notes for BSc Botany, Third Year 2023


All bacteria were widely believed to have evolved in a manner that was closely related until the late 1970s. In 1977, Carl R. challenged this idea. Numerous forms, such as spheres, rods, and spirals, are found in bacteria. The typical width of a single cell is between 0.5 and 5 micrometers (m; millionths of a meter). Bacteria are unicellular, however, they frequently exist in groups of two, four, or more. Some contain flagella, which are exterior whip-like features that help an organism move through liquid media; others have capsules, which are the cell’s outer layer; and some create spores, which are reproductive entities similar to seeds in plants. The way bacteria respond to the Gram stain is one of their key traits. Depending

The bacteria that makeup today’s are simply referred to as the actual bacteria (or the bacteria). However, because studies between the DNA sequences of various bacteria have shown many intriguing similarities, it is now unclear how different members of these three groups evolved. As a result, it is quite challenging to determine the specific ancestry of modern bacteria. Even characteristics that were believed to be unique to different taxonomic groups have surprisingly been observed in other microorganisms. For instance, the “missing link” in the global nitrogen cycle—anaerobic ammonia-oxidizer—was first isolated in 1999. This bacterium (an aberrant member of the order Planctomycetales) was discovered to have internal structures resembling, a cell with characteristics of archaea, and a method of reproduction (budding) resembling yeast.

Microbiology & Plant Pathology Notes for BSc Botany, Third Year 2023


Numerous forms, such as spheres, rods, and spirals, are found in bacteria. The typical width of a single cell is between 0.5 and 5 micrometers (m; millionths of a meter). Bacteria are unicellular, however, they frequently exist in groups of two, four, or more. Some contain flagella, which are exterior whip-like features that help an organism move through liquid media; others have capsules, which are the cell’s outer layer; and some create spores, which are reproductive entities similar to seeds in plants. The way bacteria respond to the Gram stain is one of their key traits. Some bacteria are gram-positive and exhibit the purple color of the stain depending on the chemical and structural makeup of the cell wall, whilst other bacteria are gram-negative.

When viewed under a microscope, archaea resemble bacteria, but their habitats, metabolic activities, and chemical makeup differ significantly from those of bacteria. Peptidoglycan is a compound that exists in the cell walls of all real bacteria, but not in the cell walls of archaeans. The ability of many archaeans to endure extraordinarily harsh conditions, such as high amounts of acid or salt or high temperatures, is well known. These bacteria, known as extremophiles, can be found in salt flats, thermal pools, and deep-sea vents, among other environments. Some are able to produce methane gas from carbon dioxide and hydrogen, which is a rare chemical activity. Only oxygen-free conditions, such as swamp mud or the intestines of ruminants like cattle and sheep, support the existence of methane-producing archaea. Together, these people

Algae


The DNA of eukaryotic microorganisms is contained within a nuclear membrane, creating the nucleus, just like in plant and animal cells. Microorganisms that are eukaryotic include fungi, protozoa, and algae. Commonly referred to as “protists” (order Protista, also known as “Protoctista”) are algae, protozoa, and some lower fungi. Some protists are unicellular and some are multicellular.

Algae, which are eukaryotes as opposed to bacteria, have stiff cell walls, the green pigment chlorophyll, and the ability to perform photosynthesis. They typically exist in settings with wet soil and water. These eukaryotes can range in size from microscopic unicellular organisms to multicellular ones that can reach lengths of up to 120 meters (almost 400 ft). Algae collectively display a range of forms. Single-celled species can have a variety of shapes, including spheres, rods, clubs, and spindles. Some of them move. Multicellular algae can take on a variety of shapes and levels of complexity. Others are arranged as strands of cells that are linked end to end; in some species, these strands intertwine to form microscopic creatures that resemble plants. Colonies of algae also exist; some of these consist of only of basic collections of one cell, while others contain.

Fungi are eukaryotic creatures with hard cell walls similar to those of algae. They can either contain one cell or many. While some fungi are minute, others grow to produce much larger structures, such as mushrooms and bracket fungi that develop on moist logs or in soil. Fungi cannot perform photosynthesis because they do not have chlorophyll, in contrast to algae. Fungi must take up dissolved nutrients from the environment as they do not consume food. Molds are usually used to refer to the multicellular fungus that produces filamentous, microscopic structures and are classified as microorganisms, whereas yeasts are unicellular fungi.

Mold cells have a cylindrical shape and are joined end to end to create filaments that resemble threads and may contain spores. Hyphae are tiny on an individual basis. Though, when

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